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IP Address

IP address or internet protocol address as it is expandable too is a unique address that identifies personal computers, tablets and other computing devices from the other devices in the IP network. The traditional IP address (known as IPv4 uses a 32-bit numeric is now upgraded to IPv6 that uses a 128-bit numeric address) is written in 4 sets of numbers separated by periods(.). The 32 bit IPv4 has about 4 billion unique address which has been exhausted and a new IPv6 address that is more secure and stronger with 128-bit has been invented. Every device that is connected to an IP network gets the unique IP address to communicate with other computing devices. 

The IP address is divided into two parts of network and host address. There are different Class of networks. Class A network starts with 0, Class B with 10, Class C with 110, Class D with 1110 and Class E with 1111. The network address was created to give an estimate of how many addresses have been used while the remaining digits are used for the host address which again can be split into subnetwork and host number.

An IP address is categorized as static or dynamic. The static address is permanent and does not change. A dynamic IP address is a temporary address that is given to a computer device to get connected to the internet and communicate with others on the network. IP addresses address are registered with the Internet NIC (Network Information Center) to ensure there is no duplication and create address conflicts. Web servers and mail servers generally are given a globally unique public IP address and those computers that do not require a public IP address are allotted a private IP address. NIC keeps a few IP address blocks under reserve to give organizations assign a private IP address within their network. 

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